Seminar abstracts

Recent developments in modeling geomagnetically induced currents, Ilja Honkonen, FMI

Wednesday 12th of December at 14:15-15:00 Brainstorm

Space weather effects on infrastructure are not limited to space and the atmosphere. Long ground conductor systems such as power grids, pipelines and railroads are also susceptible to space weather effects by way of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). GIC are caused by an electric field on the ground that is induced by changes in ionospheric and magnetospheric electric currents. Most severe GIC are seen during geomagnetic storms caused by the sun’s coronal mass ejections. Notable examples of GIC effects include the blackout of Canada’s Hydro-Québec grid in 1989 that occurred within minutes and left millions of people without electricity for hours, and the widespread effects on telegraph lines in US and Europe in 1859 when auroras could be seen as close to equator as southern Japan, Hawaii and Colombia.

Formation of GIC is strongly affected by ionospheric currents, ground conductivity and structure of the conductor system. For several decades GIC research utilized only 1-dimensional representation of ground conductivity in which it is assumed that conductivity does not vary in horizontal direction. While this assumption seems fairly accurate e.g. in Finland, it ignores large gradients in horizontal conductivity present at ocean coasts, for example. In these regions the error in modeled electric field due to ignoring 3d effects of geomagnetic induction can be as large as the induced electric field itself. I will present an introduction to GIC and describe the latest developments in GIC research at FMI which does include the effects of 3d ground conductivity.

FMI’s instruments onboard NASA’s Mars 2020 rover, Maria Genzer, FMI

Wednesday 5th of December at 14:15-15:00 Brainstorm

Finnish Meteorological Institute provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for NASA’s Mars 2020 rover. The sensors are part of Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA), a suite of environmental sensors. MEDA’s principal goals are to provide continuous measurements that characterize the diurnal to seasonal cycles of local environmental dust properties and near-surface environment. The devices will be shipped from Spain to NASA for final integration to rover and to final tests in the end of this year. A similar set of instruments will fly also in the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2020 mission.

Autonomous robotic research in Sodankylä from UAV:s to robots, Kari Mäenpää, FMI

Tuesday 27th of November at 13:30-14:30 Brainstorm

Currently in Sodankylä FMI is doing visual photography/aerosol measurements with RPAS-systems. With two DJI quad/hexacopters. In addition to these aerial systems there have been tests in co-operation with different partners around Finland on the Sod5g- test track with autonomous vehicle systems. Both of these activities are an integral part of future ITS(intelligent transportation systems). We will present an overview of the current active work at Sodankylä in these areas and glimpses of future projects.

Artic Imager mission recommendations, Ari-Matti Harri, FMI

Tuesday 20th of November at 14:15-15:00 Brainstorm

The Arctic region (above 50° N) is currently not observed in near-real time fashion, as is the case with satellites observing the mid-latitudes from a geostationary (GEO) orbit. This results in the situation, where some Arctic-related services have a shortage of timely observations. We will show that spatio-temporal observation requirements similar to GEO could be met by a small constellation of optical visible and infrared instruments deployed on satellites in a highly elliptical orbit (HEO) covering these regions. This concept has already been considered by space agencies concerned with polar meteorology.

The E-sail and plasma brake: where are we now, Pekka Janhunen, FMI

Thursday 11th of October at 14:30-15:15 at Brainstorm + Virtuaalihuone 1.

The principle of Coulomb drag propulsion was discovered in 2004. Technical application concepts soon followed. The first one was the multi-tether electric solar wind sail (E-sail) concept (2006) for general-purpose interplanetary propulsion. The second one was the single-tether plasma brake for deorbiting LEO satellites (2010). Thirdly, encouraged by the development of miniaturised cubesats, a single-tether E-sail nanosat concept was developed for asteroid touring (2016) and proposed to ESA. The Coulomb drag thrust has been indirectly measured in at least two laboratory experiments as well as simulated numerically. The first flying experiment was onboard the ESTCube-1 cubesat. This experiment failed due to insufficient ground testing caused by accelerated launch schedule. The second experiment is onboard Aalto-1. The experiment is waiting for fixing some software problems in the satellite’s attitude control system. Currently we are building ESTCube-2 and FORESAIL-1 cubesat experiments and are preparing to go into the solar wind. Very recently, a Finnish startup company Aurora Propulsion Technologies was created. The company aims to develop different smallsat propulsion systems including Coulomb drag propulsion.

Recent developments in radar-based probabilistic precipitation nowcasting, Seppo Pulkkinen, FMI

Thursday 20th of September at 14:15-15:00 Brainstorm

Providing short-term forecasts (nowcasts) of severe rainfall and floods is of high importance to the society. Weather radars are well-suited for this purpose due to their excellent areal coverage and high resolution. The purpose of the talk is to give an overview of my nowcasting research in Colorado State University and MeteoSwiss.

The E-sail and plasma brake: where are we now, Pekka Janhunen, FMI

Monday 27.8.2018,14:15-15:00 at Brainstorm + Virtuaalihuone 1.

Suomi 100 -satelliitti on suunniteltu ja toteutettu Aalto yliopiston johdolla yhteistyökumppanina Ilmatieteen laitoksen. Laukaisu on toteutumassa pienen odottelun jälkeen tämän vuoden lopulla Space-X /Falcon 9 -raketilla. Projektin ulkopuolisia tukijoita ovat mm. Suomi 100 –hanke ja Magnus Ehrnroothin säätiö. Satelliittiprojektista sekä Aalto -yliopiston ja Ilmatieteen laitoksen yhteistyöstä kertoo professori Esa Kallio.

5G Vehicle winter testing track and operative truck fleet for intelligent traffic research
Timo Sukuvaara, FMI

Tuesday 21st August at 14:30-15:15at Aura (1A09c) + Virtuaalihuone 1.

FMI has strong background in Intelligent Traffic research, especially in advanced road weather services. In order to maintain respectable position, a combination of research work and professional testing environment.
New testing field combines vehicle winter testing and advanced road weather services, along with professional communication environment with 5G test network, IEEE 802.11p VANET and Wi-Fi. Operative truck fleet with on-board instrumentation supports the testing of pilot services in real conditions.

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